LC-CEAL Q&A SESSIONS FOR CJK RARE BOOK CATALOGING
Library of Congress, April 1, 2002
QUESTIONS ON JAPANESE RARE BOOK CATALOGING
Senior Descriptive Cataloger, Japanese Team II, RCCD
Team Leader, Japanese Team II, RCCD
Team Leader, Rare Book Team, SMCD
Senior Cataloger, Rare Book Team, SMCD
Questions compiled by:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Reference sources for cataloging:
Can you share a standard list of reference tools that are useful for cataloging Japanese rare books, including Japanese-English dictionaries which would cover the terminology of this specialized area? Also, particularly for applying to AACR, what tools are available for cataloging Japanese rare materials?
1. What do you do if you just cannot read one or more kanji in the title or some other important parts of the material in hand?
2. How do you create a catalog record if you are missing part of the title? Assuming catalogers should supply the mark of omission ([...]) in such place, if three characters are missing from the text (when catalogers can safely assume the number of missing characters), should the transcription include the mark of omission three times: [...] [...] [...]?
Cataloger must supply the exact number of the mark of omission in square brackets ([…]).
Chief source of information:
What will be the chief source of information for Japanese old books, the caption or the whole book? What about the multi-volume items? What if your copy of the multi-volume item lacks vol. 1?
The chief source of information for a publication is the title page, or, if there is no title page, the source from within the publication that is used as a substitute for it.
If the publication has no title page, choose one as the basis of the description according to the following guidelines, applying the first applicable criterion:
a) Caption (kanshu)
b) Title from table of contents (mokuji no mae)
c) End title (bidai)
d) Title appering before preface (jo)
e) Title piece on cover (daisen)
f) Title from p.  of cover (mikaeshi)
h) Postscript (batsu)
j) Center column or Running title (hashira)
k) Title in preface, from the text
l) Title from bottom of the page (koguchigaki)
m) Title from title piece mounted on case (chitsugedai)
n) Spine title
o) Binder’s title
In a case of monographs in more than one physical part and the set is lacking the first volume, choose as the chief source the title page of volume two or the later volume. If, however, another title proper appearing on later parts predominates, choose the title proper of the later volumes.
Indicate in a note the title page chosen as the chief source of information if other than the usual title page, or, in a multivolume monograph, if it is other than the title of volume one.
Language and script of the description:
[I-1] Title in mikaeshi: (訓蒙)窮理圖解
2. How do you handle hentaigana変体仮名and man’yōgana万葉仮名for data entry in vernacular script?
[I-2] Caption title: 今古和歌うひまなひ (今古和歌宇比麻奈備)
In either case, romanize the word as it is read (pronounced). In vernacular field, any odoriji which can be reproduced should be transcribed as is but for those which can not be reproduced, repeat the letters preceding them.
[I-2] Caption title: 今古和歌うひまなひ
Romanized: Kinko waka uimanabi
1) Works in kanbun originally produced by Japanese authors, with text supplied with Japanese reading marks: Title will be read in Japanese.
2) Works in kanbun originally produced by Japanese authors, with text without Japanese reading marks: Title will be read in Japanese.
3) Works in kanbun originally produced by Chinese or Korean authors, with text supplied with Japanese reading marks: Title will be read in Japanese.
4) Works in kanbun originally produced by Chinese or Korean authors, with text without Japanese reading marks: Title will be read either in Chinese or Korean.
It does not affect the reading of the title(s) in either situation in 3 or 4. The reading of the title is determined by the language of the main text not by the fact of the presence of Japanese preface, postscript, annotations, etc. However, if the work is entered under the author of the annotator, the title will be read in Japanese.
The last situation where new [Chinese or Korean] title was given to the work being described subsequent to the original publication, the same principles listed above apply.
Title and statement of responsibility area (MARC: 245):
See Chief Source of Information above in conjunction with AACR2 2.0B1.
[I-3] Title in mikaeshi (v. 15): しらぬひ (pt. 1), 白縫 (pt. 2),
[I-3] Title in mikaeshi (v. 16): 白縫 (pt. 1), 白縫譚 (pt. 2)
[I-3] Title in colophon: しらぬひものかたり (v. 15 &16)
In general, list all variants.
Title proper is the first element of the description. Other titles and other title information preceding the chief title on the title page are considered part of the title proper. If the chief title is preceded or followed in the source by other elements of information, transpose these elements to their appropriate areas in the record (or give them in a note) unless the grammatical construction of the data would be disturbed, or the element is otherwise inseparably linked to the title proper. In the latter case, transcribe the data as part of the title proper.
[I-1] Title in mikaeshi: (訓蒙)窮理圖解 (Title piece on cover, mikaeshi, and caption all have the same title information.)
[I-4, no. 1] Title on title piece: (冠鼇)般若心經註解 全 改正 (Title piece on cover is the only source which has title information.)
[I-4, no. 2] Title on title piece: (改正)新貨條例 (Title piece on cover is the only source which has title information.)
The phrase explaining the work (the explanatory part of the title following the main title) is normally transcribed as other title information. If the other title information is lengthy, either give it in a note or abridge it by omitting less important words or phrase, using the mark of omission. If other title or phrase constitutes a formal statement of the contents of the work, however, give them in the note area unless they are an inseparable part of the title proper or of other title information.
Give edition statement, words or phrase, as found on the item in edition area.
[I-5] Mikaeshi: 清本飜刻
[I-6] Mikaeshi: 比書は五穀凶作のときの…一助とす
If no title can be found in any sources, devise a brief descriptive title, preferably in Japanese, and use this devised title enclosed in square brackets as the title proper. Indicate in a note that the title was devised by the cataloger.
Transcribe the supplied (presumed) title in the title and statement of responsibility area and explain in a note area why it was determined that the title is not the original title.
When title page gives a statement of a total number of volumes of a multivolume monograph, transcribe this information as it appears on the chief source in other title information area. Otherwise give it in a note area if it is considered important. (LC gives this information only if it appears on the chief source)
Note: 510 4# $aKokusho sōmokuroku,$cv. 7, p. 410 (Honchō burinden, 95-kan 25-satsu)
[I-4, no. 1] Title piece: 全 (omit)
[I-6] Mikaeshi: 二冊 (include if “Mikaeshi” is the chief source)
Chinese practice: Even if a total number of volumes does not appear on the chief source, it is recorded in other title information area in square brackets.
LCRI 1.7B21. “With notes” states LC practice: Creating separate bibliographic records and applying the “With” note is generally appropriate in copy-specific situation, i.e., two or more works issued independently have been subsequently place together under one cover or comparable packaging.
Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books (7C19): Rare books issued universally as one physical volume by the publisher, etc., with separate title pages, separate pagination/foliation, and separate collation (i.e., signatures) for each work included should also be cataloged separately and the “With” note applied.
Yes, transcribe all statements of responsibility appearing in the chief source of information including the person who wrote a preface.
[I-8] Caption: 筒井明俊校
If the calligrapher(s) of text or carver(s) of illustrations appear in the chief source of information, transcribe them as they appear in the title and statement of responsibility area.
If such statements appear in a source other than the chief source, give them in a note.
[I-9] 新井令恭鐫 (This page is located at the beginning of illustration pages right after the compilation principles; the work is identified as 医範提綱內象銅版図 but no source of title found in the item.)
[I-10] Colophon: 清水葵齋書, 松川半山画, 彫匠 一之巻 井上治兵衞, 二三四六之巻 甲賀喜市郎, 五之巻 樋口與兵衞 (From: 三國七高僧傅圖會. Caption: 杓杞菴一襌居士編輯)
Transcribe statements of responsibility appearing in the work in the form in which they appear in the title and statement of responsibility area. There is no need to supply other forms of names found in reference sources in square brackets. If a different form of the name of a person is found, make a see reference from that form on the name authority record that might reasonably be sought to the form that has been chosen as a entry form.
If Author’s name is not found anywhere in the work being cataloged but found in reference sources, give it in a note.
Note: 510 4b $aYōgakushi jiten, #cp. 401 and p. 659 (Zentai shinron by Benjamin Hobson (Gasshin), [possibly] written in Chinese, published in 1851.
Edition area (MARC: 250):
If no other publisher’s name is found in the work, record “Ochi zōhan” in the publication area, otherwise give it in a note.
[I-5] Mikaeshi: 越智藏版
Some editions published during the medieval period are known by generic names, or by the names of Buddhist monasteries where they were published. The statements such as Kasuga-ban, Kōya-ban, Gozan-ban, etc., mentioned above do not normally appear in the publications but are found in specialized bibliographies and reference sources and in certain cases assumptions can be made by the imprint and by the year of publication as to the identification of editions.
The prescribed sources of information for the edition area are the title page, other preliminaries, and colophon, in that order of preference. If an edition statement is not present in any of these sources, take it from any source within the publication and enclose it within square brackets. If the edition statement, or any part of the edition area, is taken from elsewhere than the title page, indicate its source in the note area.
When the publication does not contain an edition statement but it is provided by a reference source or by a specialized bibliography, or by a scholar, give this information in a note.
Although the aim for cataloging Japanese books published before 1868 is to give as much firm factual information as possible, this part of the description inevitably contains cataloger’s assumption and the use of words like “possibly” and “probably”.
Note: 510 4# $aDescriptive Cataloging of Japanese Books in the British Library Printed before 1700, 1993, $cp. 237 (Gozan-ban)
4. Are the statements such as “kaisei saikoku 改正再刻“ and “shinpan 新版“ treated as edition statement?
Yes, they are considered as edition statements unless such a phrase is part of the title. As for the two examples below, “kaisei saikoku and “shinpan” will be recorded in the edition area.
[I-1] Mikaeshi: 明治六年六月改正再刻
[I-10] Mikaeshi: 万延庚申歳夏新版
In general, “fukkoku” will be recorded in the edition area. If one can readily identify that the work was produced using “kabusebori” technique, we will probably treat the work as a reprint edition.
[I-11] Items represented by OCLC #19289087 and #37478560 are identical except the former is color printed (靑樓繪本年中行事).
If the only difference is one having colored illustrations, the presence of colored illustrations will be described in Physical Description Area (col. ill.)
[I-12] Caption of 巻第一 of春秋經傳集解. 古活字版. Kokatsujiban no kenkyū古活字
版之硏究 by Kazuma Kawase (1937, p. 375-376) lists 3 different movable type editions
of 春秋經傳集解 published in the mid-Keichō period (1596-1615), and this item is
identified as (イ)種 of the three.
Describe in a note as follow:
Note: 510 4# $aKokatsujibon no kenkyū, 1937, $cp. 375-376 (3 different editions listed: i-shu matches the work)
Publication, etc. area (MARC: 260):
AACR2 1.C1: Transcribe a place of publication, etc. in the form and grammatical case in which it appears.
DCRB 4B1: Transcribe it [place of publication] as found in the source of information used.
Both codes state to transcribe a place of publication as found but the Japanese Team, RCCD decided to drop the street name from the Publication Area when both the street name and the larger region such as Edo, etc. appear in the source of information because of the difficulty in determining the correct reading of the street name. (see DCRB 4C2)
[I-10] Colophon: 花屋町
2. Should the modern name of the place be supplied in square brackets to the old name of the place?
[I-10] Colophon: 平安
[I-10] Mikaeshi: 皇都
Supply the name of the larger place, if it does
not appear in the source of information but is considered necessary for
identification or distinction, using the English form of name if there is
one. For example,
Transcribe the publisher in the Publication, etc. area and record the existence of the seal of the owner of the woodblock in a note. A word “han” is transcribed as part of the publisher’s statement.
[I-10] Colophon: 永田調兵衞(印)
260 ## … $bNagata Chōbē
Note: “Nagata Chōbē
[with his seal stamped]”—
[I-13] Colophon: 河内家茂兵衞板
260 ## …$bKawachiya Mohē han
If publisher statement includes no more than three publishers in a single source, generally transcribe all the names in the order in which they appear. If there are more than three, record the first and the last named publishers. In this case, use the mark of omission and add in square brackets a phrase in English to convey the extent of the omission after the first.
If the name of the publishers in the colophon and the mikaeshi are different, transcribe the publisher(s) from the colophon, unless information in the mikaeshi is the later one. In any case, make notes for any publisher statements not transcribed in the publication, etc., area.
For the second question regarding zōhanin, see #2 above.
[I-10] Colophon: 永田調兵衞(印) ほか9軒
[I-10] Mikaeshi: 皇都 書堂合壽藏
Note: “皇都 書堂合壽藏”—P.  of cover (mikaeshi)
[I-13] Colophon: 河内屋茂兵衞板 ほか10軒
[I-13] Mikaeshi: 浪華 群玉堂梓
260 ## $aKyōto :$bKwachiya Tōshirō …[and 9 others] ;$aŌsaka :$bKawachiya Mohē
Note: “浪華 群玉堂梓”—P.  of cover (mikaeshi)
**Kawachiya Mohē and Gungyokudō are the same.
[I-14] Colophon: 丁字屋榮助, 錢屋惣四郎 ほか4軒
[I-14] Mikaeshi: 平安書館 竹苞樓, 瑞巌堂
Note: “平安書館 竹苞樓, 瑞巌堂”—P.  of cover (mikaeshi)
If dōgō or publisher’s name appears only in a seal, transcribe it in the publication etc., area and make a note.
[I-1] Seal in mikaeshi: 慶應義塾藏版之印
260 ## $a[
Note: “慶應義塾藏版之印 [a seal stamped]”—P.  of cover
In general, publisher statement is taken from colophon. If, however, publisher statement appearing elsewhere is known to be the later one, transcribe that statement in the publication etc., area.
[I-15] Mikaeshi: 飜刻文部省
[I-15] Colophon: 飜刻出版人 内藤傳右衞門
See #3 above.
[I-16] Colophon: Lists 15 publishers (From 新鄙形)
[I-8] Colophon: 筒井酉司 ... 蔵板, 播磨屋勝五郎發行
260 ## …:$bHarimaya Katsugorō hakkō
[I-17] Colophon of 前篇: 蓮華室藏板, 發行所 小川多左衛門, 小川重兵衛
260 ## …:$bhakkōjo Ogawa Tazaemon :$bOgawa Jūbē
[I-18] Mikaeshi: 文進堂藏
[I-18] Colophon: 文化二年  is the original publication year and this edition is printed after 1905 by前田梅吉 who established 文進堂in 1905 (cf. Shuppan bunka jinmei jiten 出版文化人名辞典, 1988, vol. 3, p. 210).
260 ## …:$bBunshindō, $c[not before 1905]
Note: Originally published: Bunka 2 
[I-6] Colophon: 天保四年巳冬求板; end of text: 天明七年丁未仲冬
260 ## … $cTenpō 4  kyūhan
260 ## … $c[not before (original date)]
Note: Explain the evidence of revised woodblock
In describing a publication consisting of volumes published over a number of years, give the date of the first published volume, or, earliest date found and the last published volume and connect them by a hyphen.
[I-19] End of v. 2: 慶安二年巳丑九月吉日 於高野山開板 (Vol. 20 is the last volume. From 大毘盧遮那成佛經疏).
260 ## …$cKeian 2 
Note: Date of publication from vol. 2, end leaf
If desired, give the date of each volume in a note. Such a note is particularly useful when the order of publication dates does not correspond to the order of the volume numeration.
Note: Vol. 2: 1649; v. 3: 1650
If the item is published by the temple and a person’s name appear in conjunction with the temple in colophon or preliminaries, transcribe the person’s name as part of the publisher statement. Otherwise record it in a note.
[I-20] End of text: 高野山金剛三昧院第三十四代良算
260 ## …$b高野山金剛三昧院第三十四代良算
Physical description area (MARC: 300):
If “kansū”, etc., appears on the chief source of information, record it in the other title information. LC has not been recording information regarding the number of volumes taken from reference sources in the other title information area but in a note (510).
[I-17] Title piece: 大和三教論一(~四), 大和三教論後篇一(~三). 前篇 (四巻四冊) was published in 天明六年, while後篇 (三巻三冊) was published in寬政二年.
Describe the extent of work according to AACR2 and Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books.
3. Should we include the graphic process or technique in parentheses after “ill.” (cf. ill. (woodcuts)), can you give us more examples of other typical techniques found in Japanese old books?
For Japanese old books, add the graphic process or technique if known. So far, LC has used woodcuts only.
None of us are capable of differentiating color-printed and hand-colored books. If you are able to differentiate, explain in a note.
Give the height of a publication (based on the copy in hand) in the Physical description area and the height of the inner boarder in a note.
Note: Within single border, except inside double; (15.8 x 12.4 cm.)
Give the height of the item according to AACR2 1.5D, 2.5D, and DCRB 5D.
a) Scrolls: Give the height of the scroll (jiku) and the length of the sheet. (20 x 325 cm.)
b) Simple rolls of long sheets: Give the height and the width of the sheet. (20 x 325 cm.)
c) Maps folded and placed in wrappers: Give the height and width of a single sheet. If such a sheet is designed to be folded when issued, add the dimensions of the sheet when folded. (48 x 30 cm. folded to 24 x 15 cm.)
Number of volumes: When the number of physical volumes in which a
publication was bound subsequent to initial publication differs from the number
of bibliographic volumes, give the bibliographic volumes (
Note: LC copy bound in 1 v.$5DLC
Note: LC set bound in western style (yōsōban) in 2 v.; original covers probably removed and top edge cut.$5DLC
Note area (MARC: 5XX):
Make notes on any special features of the copy being described when they are considered important. A feature such as binding is always brought out in a note.
Fukurotoji: On double leaves, oriental style (fukurotoji)
Orihon: On double leaves, folded accordion style (orihon)
Detchōsō: Printed on one side of leaf (detchōsō)
mikaeshi 見返し: p.  of cover (mikaeshi)
hashira 柱: On each fold (hashira)
kokatsujibon 古活字本: Early movable type printing
We are not sure what the common translations are for the terms listed above. However, it is helpful to consult the glossary of the Descriptive Catalogue of Japanese Books in the British Library printed before 1700, published by the British Library and Tenri Central Library, 1993 which gives you definitions of library terms in English.
[I-12] 春秋經傳集解 (古活字版): 白口, 双辺, 有界, 八行十七字, 花口双黒魚尾
Japanese catalogers do not give in notes some of the features such as白口, 十七字, 花口双黒魚尾, etc., the Chinese Guidelines required. (See Chinese Guidelines below)
Cataloging Guidelines for Creating Chinese Rare Book Records in Machine-Readable Form, 2000. Section 8.6:
“Block format: describe the frame measurement per half-folio from the first page of the text after the character k'uang and give the number of columns per page, the number of characters per column, whether white (blank) or black center column, border lines, fishtail, the upper, middle, and lower sections of the center column and other significant features. Note ‘shu-ming’ in Chinese characters if the title is the same as in the title statement. The frame measurement should include the outer border lines and outer edge of the folded center column and, if taken from other than the first page of the text, state the location in parentheses after the character k'uang.”
LC does not record the total number of characters printed in the text but you may do so if you think it is important enough to bring it out and it is readily available.
[I-12] End of work: 經凡一十九萬八千三百四十八言, 注凡一十四萬六千七百八十八言
Personal/Corporate name entries:
“Determine the name by which a person is commonly known from the chief sources of information of works by that person issued in his or her language.” (AACR2 22.1B) He will be established as “Shinratei” without the title (rōshi).
Kokusho sōmokuroku choshabetsu sakuin; Kotenseki sōgō mokuroku, vol. 3 (index); Kokusho jimmei jiten, vol. 5 (index) are useful in determining a person’s name by which he or she is commonly known.
[I-21] Mikaeshi: 森羅亭老師撰
Make added entries under headings for persons as instructed in AACR2 21.29, 21.30, etc., but we are more generous in making added entries when cataloging old Japanese books. For example, we normally will not make added entries for illustrators, calligraphers, author of preface, etc. when cataloging current materials but added entries may be considered for these persons when cataloging old Japanese books, if the cataloger considers that it will provide an important access point to the work.
[I-8] Caption: 筒井明俊校
[I-10] Colophon: 清水葵齋書, 松川半山画, 彫匠 一之巻 井上治兵衞, 二三四六之巻 甲賀喜市郎, 五之巻 樋口與兵衞
[I-20] End of text: 高野山金剛三昧院第三十四代良算
[I-22] 東海道五十三次: While the signature of Hiroshige and the seals are found on each print of the series, the illustrations are not exactly the same as those of well-known Hoeidō-ban 保永堂版.
According to Dai Nihon hyakka daijiten, Shōgakukan, 1970, v. 3, Andō Hiroshige produced 38 versions of Tōkaidō. Although Hiroshige’s signature and his seals are not legible from the copies you’ve sent us, if Hiroshige’s signatures and seals are present on the work being cataloged, the work can be considered to be Hiroshige’s work even though the illustrations are not exactly the same as those of Hoeidō-ban. If you have evidence to doubt that the work is by Hiroshige, enter under the title.
See AACR2 21.10, etc. For adaptations of art works, see 21.16, etc.
Do you supply uniform titles with qualifiers to the works that have multiple versions (the same title is given but the content is different by versions)? For instance, it is known that Andō Hiroshige produced several different versions of Tōkaidō gojūsantsugi東海道五十三次 including 1) 保永堂, 仙鶴堂版, 天保前期刊, 大判５５枚, 通称「保永堂版東海道」, 2) 佐野屋喜兵衛版, 天保後期刊, 中判５６枚, 通称「狂歌入東海道」, 3) 江崎屋版, 天保後期刊, 間判５５枚, 通称「行書東海道」, and 4) 丸屋清次郎版, 弘化４年―嘉永５年刊, 大判５５枚, 通称「隷書東海道」(Tsutomu Shiraishi, ed. Hiroshige Tōkaidō gojūsantsugi 廣重東海道五十三次, 1988). Should we provide the uniform titles with qualifiers for the later versions of Tōkaidō gojūsantsugi? If so, how do you make them?
AACR2 25.1A instructs catalogers when to use uniform titles.
LC practice is not to use a uniform title to bring together multiple versions dealing with the same subject matter whether they were published under the same title or not.
For editions, LC follows 25.2B and does not use a uniform title for a manifestation of a work in the same language that is a revision or updating of the original work.
Cataloging Guidelines for Creating Chinese Rare Book Records in Machine-Readable Form, 2000. Section 9.
In general, avoid assigning uniform titles; assign a uniform title only if it enhances access and the title given for an item is different from the title identified in modern reference source. Do not use collective uniform titles, such as Works, Selections, Essays, etc.