Pacific Salon III Town & Country Hotel and Resort, San Diego California
1. CJM Chair Hideyuki Morimoto called the meeting to order at 10:45 AM. We began by introducing members of CJM who were present: Frank L. Chance (who took minutes), Toshie Marra, and Kuniko Yamada McVey. Several handouts were distributed.
2. Scanned Image Data of Rare Materials for the Kyoto University Digital Library
Mr. Keita Goto of Kyoto University introduced the Kyoto University Digital Library, now containing more than 140,000 images of rare materials. The project began with a 1994 electronic exhibition, proceeded through digitization and display of Kunijo kabuki ekotoba in 1995, and has progressed since. Photography and scanning are being outsourced followed by conversion of files to JPEG format. They conducted a survey of usage, which has been much heavier than expected, and find that primary uses include instruction and research, but also viewing for personal leisure.
Future considerations include investigation of how to add value to the service, methods of encoding and translation of texts into modern Japanese and even English. They are also considering a scroll-like continuous representation of handscroll images. They currently include a Kyoto University logo on each screen, but are considering adding electronic watermarks for further copyright protection. Surprisingly, requests to see actual documents have actually increased, raising issues of preservation and access.
3. International ILL Operations in Japan : the Case of Waseda University Library
Mr. Noboru Takahashi of Waseda University introduced the international inter-library loan program of Waseda University, along with general issues of international loans. His graphics indicated the unbalance between institutions. The National Diet Library is an exclusive lender, the national universities are almost exclusively borrowers, and the private universities borrow much more than they lend. Borrowing in general is much more active in Japan, but not at a very high level due to accounting and financial legal issues allowing collection of payments in yen only.
Mr. Takahashi compared the ARL Japan Project to the ancient kurofune ships of foreign visitors, and the NDL to the Dutch colony at Dejima. One problem is that all branches of the Waseda library system are designated “LWU” in WorldCat, though some branches do not circulate books even internally, and certainly not through ILL. He noted that many requests cannot be filled—patrons want reference works or audio-visual materials which do not circulate, for example. Often users request books that are available in the country of origin, or even locally! Formerly, Waseda tried to supply copies of materials not owned by the Waseda libraries, but cannot continue that practice due to expense.
Mr. Takahashi asked for the cooperation of librarians from Japan and the US, looking for accord and standardization on issues of payment, order forms, and the like. He will try to help anyone seeking an international inter-library loan, and would like to create an interactive international ILL directory. He strongly recommended reference to the Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook, 2nd edition, by Virginia Boucher, and indicated that he is producing the Interlibrary Loan Directory and the and International ILL Handbook 2nd edition.
4. Workshop on Early Japanese Illustrated Books (2000 : Freer Gallery of Art)
Ms. Reiko Yoshimura of the Freer Gallery of Art presented a brief summary of the workshop, which was unfortunately troubled by heavy snowfall which closed the US Government (and hence the Freer Gallery) at the time of the workshop. She distributed a glossary and bibliography, and described lectures by Professor Suzuki Jun on the way early illustrated books are handled in Japan, particularly for the purpose of cataloging, which differs somewhat from the handling in North America. Kokusho sōmokuroku and Kotenseki sōgō mokuroku are used as tools for determining uniform titles, when books appear with variant titles. There are ways of tracking down just which publisher is responsible for which edition, and of establishing at least approximate dates of production. For example, referring to book advertisements at the back and publisher information on the mikaeshi or okuzuke can also be helpful. Edition variations can range from re-use of the same blocks through small corrections with ireki and umeki block inserts, to the cutting of new blocks altogether. These alternatives deserve cataloguers’ attention, though it may be difficult to determine what changes were made unless there are multiple copies of the book available. Materials from the workshop will be translated from Japanese into English and made available on the WWW.
5. Fourth Japan Foundation-National Diet Library Librarians' Training Program
Ms. Sachie Noguchi, University of Pittsburgh reported on this program held from January 17 to February 4, 2000, in Tokyo. It included 13 participants from 11 countries. The sessions on rare books and reference materials were most helpful, and a session on newspapers was added at the request of participants. In particular, the materials on reference works included handouts, personal assessment of collections, and evaluations of the most important materials. Extensive photocopies were distributed with regard to statistical materials.
Insight into the world of rare books came through discussion of digitization, and many materials will be available through the Internet in the near future.
The workshop included training in NACSIS services and discussion of future plans, including implementation of the fully operational web version of NACSIS IR. The web version is a great improvement over the telnet version, and readings will soon be included in WebCat records.
A special session on international cooperation emphasized that everyone is working toward global interaction. Internationally, we have many shared concerns, including budgets, outsourcing, and other matters.
Site visits to national, private, public, and special libraries rounded out the program. Some of the highlights were visits to the National Archive, the Statistics Library, the university libraries of Waseda and Kyōdai, the Ōsaka Prefectural Library, and the library of the Japan Foundation.
The synergy of the program was beautiful, and thanks were paid to the National Diet Library staff, the Japan Foundation, NACSIS, and Izumi Koide of the International House of Japan for their efforts in presenting the training program.
6. Committee Member Reports/Short Presentations
Hideyuki Morimoto briefly described three other workshops held in the last year. He mentioned the European Association of Japanese Resource Specialists, the International Conference on Japanese Information in Science, Technology, and Commerce (Jōhō 6), and the workshop on Cooperation for Japanese Library Resources Overseas.
On a rather sad note, Mr. Morimoto reminded us that the Japan Documentation Center at the Library of Congress will close at the end of March 2000. Responsibilities will be shifted to the Japanese Section staff of the Library of Congress. He introduced Ms. Ichiko Morita, who made brief remarks on the 6 years that the documentation center program existed, beginning with two PC’s and a single telephone. Only recently, she said, had they achieved stability at last. She gave special thanks to Laura Wong, and to all who had worked to make the center a success.
Mr. Morimoto continued with remarks on the LC subject heading change from “Trade-unions” to “Labor unions.” He noted the new syntax of the heading used in reference to specific types of trade-unions/labor unions. Previously, heading element "Trade-unions" was subdivided by the types of industries; now, heading element "Labor unions" follows occupational groups and types of employees. For instance, Trade-unions |x Railroads |z Japan is now split into: Railroads |x Employees |x Labor unions |z Japan ; Railroad construction workers |x Labor unions |z Japan ; as well as NTs/RTs, Locomotive engineers, Porters, and Telegraphers followed by |x Labor unions |z Japan. For instance, Iyotetsu Rōso shijūnenshi may receive an optional subject heading: Railroads |x Employees |x Labor unions |z Japan |z Ehime-ken |x History |y 20th century.
Toshie Marra also brought three issues briefly to light. Two concerned rare books; she noted that previous surveys and other sources indicate the existence of a number of rare Japanese collections held by academic libraries and museums in North America. One of the problems is access to materials stored in individual libraries, as ILL is impossible and even viewing may be difficult to non-members of the hosting institutions. Rare holdings need to be clearly recognized. The National Institute of Japanese Literature (NIJL) is planning to include in the future holdings data outside of Japan in their union list database for Japanese rare materials. Individual institutions in North America are encouraged to accumulate their holdings data in preparation for submitting to NIJL in the near future.
She also mentioned cataloging of Japanese rare materials. The Library of Congress has recently developed brief guidelines for cataloging Japanese rare books, namely “Edoki kanpon shahon no katarogu.” Though originally intended for internal use, copies of these guidelines were made available through the generosity of the author, Manae Fujishiro. If catalogers outside LC want a more expanded, formal guideline publication written in English, LC may also be able to help on the project under the initiative of the Committee on Japanese Materials. Ms. Marra asked participants for comments on this issue. As to the LC’s Japanese rare book cataloging project, the Japanese Teams will catalog some 5,300 titles, and their records are accessible through RLIN and OCLC under the heading of Japanese Rare Book Collection (Library of Congress).
Ms. Marra briefly discussed the issue of bibliographic romanization, considering problems of
works in Chinese published in Japan, Japanese works published outside of Japan, and the
like. Current guidelines in ALA-LC Romanization Tables are not sufficient in some cases.
While the approach toward the issue is undecided at present, she asked for help in
collecting items of question and issues of this nature. She also shared news that the
Cataloging Policy and Support Office at the Library of Congress has recently reached a
consensus to have Kanbun literature classified with Japanese literature.
Kuniko Yamada McVey reported that Harvard-Yenching Library rare books are being cataloged, and should be completed by this June. For Eddy Harrison, she transmitted a number of specific reference questions that he received from patrons and answers to those questions that he provided to the patrons. For example, a search for the journal Arabesuku, and a search for Japanese-American scenes in Seattle for the No-no boy Project. Harrison also sent questions about finding daily stock quotations from the Tokyo Stock Market, how to find the death date or mailing address for a Japanese professor, and what authorities could be relied upon for the Latin names of Japanese fish.
7. Questions/Answers and Discussion.
Yasuko Makino seconded Toshie Marra’s comments on the need for guidelines on Japanese rare books, especially with reference to guidelines prepared through the RLG project for cataloging of Chinese rare materials.
Ms. Akiba rose to express her feelings toward the closing of the Japan Documentation Center. She thanked Ms. Morita and Ms. Wong for both their efforts and their strong emotional response to news of the closing. Whatever the reasons for this unfortunate turn of events, they raised the question of what should be considered “gray literature” that should be preserved. She wanted to leave no ambiguity that LC staff taking over does not represent a solution or finalization of these questions and issues.
Professor Miyazawa rose to thank Mr. Takahashi for Waseda’s participation in international ILL. ANUL and ARL have begun a project for ILL, hoping to supplement the narrow gate currently open for ILL with the national universities.
It was asked whether statistics and reference materials from the NCC conference can be distributed. Mr. Morimoto replied that he would discuss this issue with the NCC.
Kristina Troost asked that new Japanese Materials Librarians stand and be introduced. They included Ms. Nakamura at Washington University in St Louis, Mr. Kamada at the University of Arizona, Ms. Bazzell at the University of Hawaii, Ms. Yokota-Carter at the University of Washington, Ms. McVey at the Harvard-Yenching Library, Ms. Shirafuji at the University of Wisconsin, Ms. Wong at Johns Hopkins, Ms. De Weerdt at the Harvard-Yenching Library and Ms. Marra at UCLA.
8. The group adjourned at 12:40 PM. The next public meeting of the Committee will be in Chicago at the CEAL conference on March 21-22, 2001.